Which Motor Oil Is Right For Your Vehicle?

While motor oil is used in many different kinds of engines, we most often think of using it in our automobiles. Whether you change your oil at a dealership, in specialty business, or in your own garage, you will need to determine what kind is best for your car. It can make a big difference in how long your car’s engine will last.

Types of Oil

Consult your owner’s manual for the recommended viscosity (5W-20, 5W-30, 10W-20, etc.). You may also want to talk to a professional about the best choice for your vehicle, given your driving habits and the typical operating conditions for the area. Next, you’ll have to decide the type of motor oil you would like in your car.

Conventional: This type is used most often by dealerships and service companies. It is also the least costly. Most don’t have many other additives that may benefit your engine. If you are diligent about keeping your oil changed, about every three months or 3,000 miles, this kind should be fine.

Premium Conventional: Most new cars will be serviced with this type. It is available in the most common viscosities that are appropriate for nearly every light-duty vehicle.

Full Synthetic: This type is made for high-tech engines. They are rigorously tested to ensure they have a better, longer-lasting performance, including:

- Protection against engine deposits
- Enhanced flow at low temperatures
- Greatest lubrication at high temperatures

This type is more expensive than conventional, and not all engines need it. Refer to your owner’s guide, and if it doesn’t recommend this type, it may just be an additional cost that doesn’t add that much value to your engine.

Synthetic Blend: As the name suggests, this type is actually a blend of conventional and synthetic. It is designed to give the engine better protection during heavier loads and higher temperatures. It is frequently used in trucks and SUV’s. Even though there is the synthetic component, it does not cost much more than premium conventional types.

High Mileage: Once your vehicle has more than 75,000 miles on the engine, you may want to consider a motor oil designed for that purpose. This type is formulated with seal conditioners that help to keep the internal engine seals flexible.

Oil Additives

Once you’ve chosen among these different types, you will find there are additives that may be included to address specific engine performance conditions.

Detergents: These are designed to prevent high-temperature deposits, rust, and corrosion. They may even help remove some existing deposits.

Anti-Wear Additives: As the motor oil breaks down, it forms a film. These additives help protect the metal surfaces of your engine against that film.

Viscosity Index Improvers: Oil has a tendency to thin as the temperature increases. This additive reduces its ability to do that.

Foam Inhibitors: The crankshaft rotation causes foaming, which doesn’t lubricate as well. This additive disperses the foam.

Friction Modifiers: These additives reduce the friction in the engine, which results in improved gas mileage.

When it comes to motor oil for your vehicle, it’s best to start with the recommendation from your owner manual. Talk to your dealership or other service professionals about your particular driving habits and vehicle history. They can help you choose the product that’s right for your situation, in order to keep your vehicle running smoothly for as long as possible.

Managing the Family Blender – Making Blended Families Work

Do you own a blender in your home? If you do, what type of blender would you say you own? Is it small, medium, or large? Is it one of those high-tech blenders with multiple buttons with different speeds? Or is it an older style blender with just a few buttons with only two or three different speeds? I do own blender in my home. I would have to say it is a rather large blender. As the man of my house and the head of my house hold, I take it upon myself to be the manager of the blender in my house. You see, the blender that I am referring to is not the kind that you may think. I am actually referring to my family.

I have a blended a family. My wife and I both come from previous marriages. In each of those marriages, we produced children. When my wife and I met and fell in love, we decided to bring our families together to form one big family. We are what you might call the modern-day “Brady Bunch.” The blended family is much more common today than it ever has been. If not handled the right way, being a part of a blended family can be a nightmare. On the other hand, if properly managed, a blended family can form a bond that can allow for the removal of the “Blended” and can just be a family; a healthy, supportive, and loving one.

My wife is 100% Dominican. She was born and raised in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. She moved to the United States at an early age and lived between New York, New Jersey, and Texas. I am African-American. I was born and raised in Baltimore, Maryland. We are both ex-military and currently reside in North Carolina. Between my wife and I and our children, we bring three different ethnicities to the table. We also bring different upbringings, cultures, personalities, and attitudes as well. This can be a very stressful mix if the right frames of mind are not brought to the forefront. Luckily, my wife and I came to a very good understanding of how we want to raise our family. We both understand that we must have a sound foundation and that we must set the standards for our family and then stick by them.

We understand that bringing a blended family together is hard work and it takes great effort. It takes time for a family like this to gel together. It is not an overnight procedure. It is also very difficult to put a timeline on a process such as this. Each family dynamic is different and may take varying amounts of time to achieve the ultimate goal, which is a single, fully functional unit of love, respect and support for one another. We also understand that it takes plenty of fortitude to be able to manage the large mix of personalities and different attitudes, wants and desires. This effort has to be looked at as a life-long commitment to making the family work and everyone has to get on one accord and do their part. My wife and I made that commitment before we even got married and we recognize that putting the blender to work in our family starts with us. As the head of my house, I feel that it ultimately starts with me setting the tone.

Here are some concepts that my wife and I decided to incorporate into our family culture.

1) Rules must be put in place to develop discipline and responsibility. Once my wife and I agree on a house rule, we hold everyone accountable. Each child is held to the same standard. No one receives preferential treatment and everyone who violates a house rule is subject to the same punishment.

2) Communication on our part as parents is critical when dealing with our children. We have to always be in agreement with everything when it comes to the children. We never let any of our children play us against one another. Whatever my wife tells them, I back her up and vice versa. We never have disagreements in front of them. We save those for when we are alone and can talk things out in private.

3) Respect is huge in our family. There are all boys here in the house. I am tough on them when it comes to respecting the woman of the house. There is to be absolutely no disrespect of any kind displayed toward my wife at any time. It does not matter if it is her biological sons or her step-sons. I correct with haste, any actions that I deem disrespectful towards her. Teaching the boys how to respect women is a priority of mine and I will work hard to instill that quality in all of them. I demand respect as well, but the dynamic of my relationship with the boys is slightly different and I go out of my way to distinguish that difference with them.

4) Education is very important to our family. We try to instill the value of education into our children. We don’t just do that by word of mouth. We also demonstrate it through our actions. My wife is pursuing her undergraduate degree and I am working on a degree as well. They see us faithfully completing our school work as well as pursuing our career dreams. We want them to understand that they must work hard to achieve their goals and dreams. We make sure they understand that whatever they want to do or be, they can if they put their minds to it and work hard.

5) Family fun is necessary for bonding and just being able to unwind and enjoy being with each other. We consistently do family events together. Whether it is a cruise, sporting event, going to church or to a movie, a trip to one of our favorite restaurants, or just taking a drive to Baskin Robbins for some ice cream, we spend lots of time together doing fun things as a family. We work hard, so we should play hard as well. We also support one another’s individual events. All of our children like to play different sports. We all support each other in our individual events too. We want everyone in this family to know they have a support system at home that they can trust and depend on.

6) Love is the key ingredient that helps to make everything work. We try as hard as we can to create an environment that is full of love. My wife and I are very affectionate in our home. We show lots of affection in front of our boys so they can see it. I love my wife and I show her through my affections towards her. If they follow my example, my boys will also learn how to properly treat a lady, with kindness and respect. We also show plenty of affection towards the boys. We want them to know that we love them. We want them to understand that we desire to see all of them grow up to be happy and successful men.

Our overall goal is to ensure that our children have a safe, healthy, and loving environment where they can grow, thrive, and become well-rounded young men. We believe that the six concepts that we incorporated into our family culture have begun to reap great rewards. We still have a lot more to do and a long way to go, but we are well on our way to a great start in developing our family. I believe the same concepts can also be helpful to anyone who has a blended family.

Remember, nurturing a blended family is like making the perfect cake batter! Once you have all the ingredients, blend them together until you have a smooth mix. When the cake is baked in the oven at the right temperature for the right amount of time, you will have a nice looking, sweet-smelling, and great tasting dessert. This is the way I see my family, which is why I work so hard to make sure our family is built on unity, love, and respect. That is why I consider myself to be the manager of the blender in my home. Truthfully, every member of the blended family has to contribute in order to make the family a success. So in a way, each person is a manager of the family blender. Let the blender in your house work for you!

Micro-Optics: Manufacturing, Testing and Characterization Processes

Micro-optics has opened up a new world of optics for people today. They are not just the basis of modern high-tech microelectronics, but are can successfully produce creative solutions by rightfully combining the traditional optical technologies with its modern counterpart. The manufacturing process of micro-optics includes advanced light use and cutting-edge optical features and functionality. This technology helps to create customized solutions to meet your customer requirements, easily and quickly.

There are companies that produce micro-optic products offering excellent performance and leveraging the state of the art fabrication technologies. These products help to meet specific needs of customers and covers fast and flexible prototyping to large-scale production of diffraction, refractive and hybrid micro-optics. Use of deep UV and long wave infrared is also noted.

One of the most popular manufacturing processes is wafer-based. It is a standard technology used in the semiconductor industry. Experts believe for manufacturing high-quality products, wafer-based microlens technology is most hopeful. It uses processes like resist coating, lithography, reactive ion etching, and more. You can use this technology to produce 10 microns to 2mm diameter as well as aspherical lens with outstanding uniformity and right lateral positions.

One of the main areas of concern for micro-optics part is the correct choice of manufacturing process. In addition, for testing, people must take special care. Due to small size of microlens openings, there is limitation of measurement accuracy by fringes number and sampling accuracy. However, the current scenario doesn’t offer proper testing and characterization. Testing equipment in the semiconductor industry or test equipment from traditional optical manufacturing is not suitable for these kind of products and services.

Wafer-based technology uses standard semiconductor rules and apparatus. Actually, the semiconductor industry is the leader with high amount of investment made in high-tech modern tools and apparatus. One of the prime benefits of manufacturing micro-optics is the use of all equipment that the semiconductor industry uses for its own needs. So it is quite cost-effective. Moreover, since all processes depend on standard technologies of the semiconductor industry, so quality has nothing to do with your budget.

However, one area of concern is the use of instruments for testing microlenses. It is still outdated and not developed for ensuring high quality and accuracy. For example, if you want to test interferometrical of small microlens you have to combine interferometer with a microscope for adequate magnifying of observed fringe patterns. If you want to test large microlenses, you need more advanced, fast equipment which is now unavailable. Since the micro-optics industry is still very new, this lack of adequate instruments is serving as a constraint to manufacturing, testing and characterization.

Research institutions or the manufacturing companies themselves develop most of test instruments that we use in the micro-optics industry these days. Since this industry is not yet popular, manufacturers built instruments in small quantity only. Therefore, the lack of instruments is a burning problem in this field. In the manufacturing phase, process optimization is directly dependent on the ability to measure products quality.

Singh Vikash is an optical expert having years of experience in writing on topics such as optical manufacturing and recently on micro optics manufacturing, testing and characterization. In this article, he discusses about wafer-based micro optics manufacturing process and its drawbacks.